refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex.
Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as gender-normative; behaviors that are viewed as incompatible with these expectations constitute gender non-conformity.
In 1975, the APA adopted a resolution stating that “homosexuality per se implies no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities” and urging “all mental health professionals to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with homosexual orientations” (Conger, 1975, p. In the years following the adoption of this important policy, the APA indeed has taken the lead in promoting the mental health and well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people and in providing psychologists with affirmative tools for practice, education, and research with these populations.
The guidelines revision process was funded by Division 44 and by the APA Board of Directors.
Supporting literature for these guidelines is consistent with the APA Ethics Code (APA, 2002b) and other APA policy.
In addition, the quality of the data sets of studies has improved significantly with advent of population-based research.
Furthermore, the past decade has seen a revival of interest and activities on the part of political advocacy groups in attempting to re-pathologize homosexuality (Haldeman, 2002, 2004).
American Psychiatric Association, 1974; American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, 1991; American Counseling Association, 1996; Canadian Psychological Association, 1995; National Association of Social Workers, 1996) which state that homosexuality and bisexuality are not mental illnesses.
These guidelines were developed collaboratively by Division 44 / Committee on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity(CSOGD).
Guidelines grounded in methodologically sound research, the APA Ethics Code, and existing APA policy are vital to informing professional practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients.
These guidelines have been used nationally and internationally in practice and training and to inform public policy.
They will expire or be revised in 10 years from the date they are adopted by APA.
These guidelines build upon APA’s Ethics Code (APA, 2002b) and are consistent with pre-existing APA policy pertaining to lesbian, gay, and bisexual issues.
In addition, the refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex (i.e., atypical combinations of features that usually distinguish male from female).