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— Reliability versus validity: The criteria of APD is easy to measure, resulting in an over inclusive, highly reliable diagnosis but with questionable validity, especially when considering the personality features associated with psychopathy. Return to top — The addition of criminal criteria to Hare's tests has contributed to the view of psychopaths as a type of criminal versus the view that psychopathy is a type of abnormal personality.

— Psychopathy is an abnormal categorical disorder versus the view that psychopathy is a dimensional extension of abnormal personality characteristics. The PCL-R assessment of psychopathy: Development, structural properties, and new directions.

A superficially charming and engaging personality combined with a ruthless willingness to "do whatever it takes to get the job done" can be extremely useful in a high-stakes, pressure-filled environment (Schouten and Silver, 2012, p. — Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is not synonymous with psychopathy: most psychopaths will also be given an APD diagnosis, however, many who are diagnosed as APD are not considered psychopaths (a unique group receiving little research attention).

— APD has a lifetime (community) prevalence of 2 - 4% in the United States, but this varies widely with gender, men being about 6.5 % women being about 1%.

This isn't aggression that arises from an emotional reaction; it's the calculated use of aggression as a tool.

Reactive aggression, on the other hand, is much more impulsive and emotion driven and arises from a perceived threat or attack or uncontrolled anger.

— Therapy is not helpful or even counterproductive in psychopaths (increasing psychopathic behavior) versus the view that the effects of therapy can be positive, especially in youth.

Others have suggested results of therapy are essentially unknown based upon today's data.

Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed. Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile.

— Types of psychopaths commonly identified: Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. In this article we discuss issues surrounding its structural properties and those of its derivatives. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We now have an impressive body of replicable and meaningful empirical findings, due in large part to the widespread adoption of the PCL-R and its derivatives as a common working model of psychopathy.

To a psychopath, a punch in the face and a lie hidden behind a friendly smile are merely separate tools to be employed as dictated by circumstances.

The bottom line: psychopaths can be dangerous even as they outwardly present a pleasant and welcoming demeanor (Schouten and Silver, 2012, pp. Psychopathy Is Not Synonymous with Criminality: Of course, given their proclivity for ignoring social norms and laws, quite a few psychopaths find their way into the criminal justice system, some spending significant portions of their lives incarcerated.

In conjunction with their unfeeling and incessant drive to take care of themselves, psychopaths are predators, and anyone who can feed their need at the moment is potential prey. We also report new evidence that psychopathy and its factors are dimensional in nature, perhaps extreme variants of normal personality traits and behaviors.