It is clear that among neighboring nations that were in position to have an influence over Israel - and in fact which did influence it in various matters - there is no precise parallel to the Israelite Sabbatical week.
The ordering of the weekday names is not the classical order of the planets (by distance in the planetary spheres model, or, equivalently, by their apparent speed of movement in the night sky).
Instead, the planetary hours systems resulted in succeeding days being named for planets that are three places apart in their traditional listing.
Calculating (2458116 mod 7 1) yields 4, corresponding to Thursday.).
The days of the week were originally named for the classical planets.
This naming system persisted alongside an "ecclesiastical" tradition of numbering the days, in ecclesiastical Latin beginning with dominica (the Day of the Lord) as the first day.
The Greco-Roman gods associated with the classical planets were rendered in their interpretatio germanica at some point during the late Roman Empire, yielding the Germanic tradition of names based on indigenous deities.There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the biblical seven-day cycle.Friedrich Delitzsch and others suggested that the seven-day week being approximately a quarter of a lunation is the implicit astronomical origin of the seven-day week According to this theory, the Jewish week was adopted from the Babylonians while removing the moon-dependency. Tigay and others claimed that the sabbath is mentioned as a day of rest in some of the earliest layers of the Pentateuch dated to the 9th century BC at the latest, centuries before Judea's Babylonian exile.The obsolete septimane is cognate with the Romance terms derived from Latin septimana ("a seven"). A week is defined as an interval of exactly seven days, ≈ 52.1786 weeks, which cannot be represented by a finite decimal expansion).There are exactly 20,871 weeks in 400 Gregorian years, so 28 December 1617 was a Thursday just like 28 December 2017.They also find the resemblance between the biblical Sabbath and the Babylonian system weak.