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These are the exceptions to the rule in Salomon’s Case, when the corporate veil is lifted and the reality of the situation is examined.It was held that As soon as citizens form a company, the rights guaranteed to them by article 19(1)c has been exercised and no restraint has been placed on the right and no infringement of that right is made.The plaintiff, who was the major shareholder and managing director of the company, sought to conduct the company’s defence.

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It is quite common in Ireland for one person to have such a variety of roles and still be a different legal entity from the company. Lee formed his crop spraying business into a limited company in which he was director, shareholder and employee. Lee was self-employed and thus not covered by the legislation. Lee and the company he had formed were separate entities, and it was possible for Mr. The following case is similar to Salomon and Lee, but the principle of separate personality worked to the disadvantage of the plaintiff.

When he was killed in a flying accident, his widow sought social welfare compensation from the State, arguing that Mr. The defendant company was involved in legal proceedings but did not have enough money for legal representation.

He sold the land and timber to a company he formed and received as consideration all the fully paid shares.

The company carried the business of felling and milling timber. Macaura had earlier insured the timber against loss of by fire in his own name. He subsequently sold the plantation to a company of which he was the only shareholder, through the purchase money remained owing to him.

Separate personality means that the artificial legal person, the company, can do almost everything a human person can do; it can make contracts, employ people, borrow and pay money, sue and be sued, among other things.

The ‘veil of incorporation’ is the rather poetic term given to this separation of the company from its shareholders or members.

If a corporation is sued, then the owners will not have their personal belongings at risk unless those belongings were purchased with illegal returns from the corporation.

In a sole proprietorship or partnership, the owners personally liable.

The ‘corporate veil’ surrounds the company of Murphy & Co Ltd and prevents outsiders challenging the operation of the company.

However, although the principle of separation is central to company law, there are a number of situations when the company and its members can be identified together and treated as the same.

Once a company or corporation is formed, the business which is carried on by the such company or corporation is the business of that company or corporation and is not the business of the citizens who get the company or corporation incorporated and the rights of the incorporated body must be judges on that footing and cannot be judged on the assumption that they are the rights attributed to the business of individual citizens.